What is swimmer's ear?
For many of us, summer fun includes splashing in the nearest body of water. But what happens when our desire to cool off in the water leads to a painful swimmer's ear or even temporary hearing loss? It happens more often than you might think.
What is swimmer's ear?
It's actually a skin infection
Swimmer’s ear is an infection of the skin of the ear canal, and it can be excruciatingly painful.
The infection enters the ear through bacteria found in water. All water contains bacteria, and the levels are even higher in non-treated water found in lakes, rivers and oceans. When this bacteria-laden water doesn’t drain properly from the ear canal, it becomes trapped. In the warm, moist environment of the ear canal, the bacteria multiply and cause an infection. The infection causes swelling and inflammation; not a good turn of events in a tight space such as an ear canal. The ear canal simply cannot accommodate the swelling and the resulting pain can be excruciating.
A very common problem
Swimmer’s ear, also known as otitis externa, affects millions of people every year. The numbers rise in the summer, with nearly half of cases occurring between June and August. Though mostly associated with children—as they are more susceptible due to narrower ear canals—swimmer’s ear can affect people of any age. It also occurs five times more often in swimmers than in the general population.
Even the nickname “swimmer’s ear” is somewhat of a misnomer; although common to swimmers, you don’t have to be a swimmer to get it. Sometimes just living in a hot and humid climate is enough for moisture to build up and become trapped.
"Bacteria proliferate in a warm, moist environment," said Bridget Redlich, infection preventionist at Lake Charles Memorial Health System in Louisiana. “Water that stays in the ear after swimming or even showering, if you don't get all of the moisture out and get it good and dry, then it can lead to swimmer's ear."
Symptoms of swimmer's ear
A full or clogged feeling in the ear that may cause sound to be muffled is often the first telltale sign of swimmer’s ear. If untreated at that point, what follows is intense pain, swelling and sometimes discharge.
Can swimmers ear cause permanent hearing loss?
Fortunately, symptoms of swimmer’s ear, including hearing loss, are temporary and get better with treatment.
Can swimmer's ear cause tinnitus?
Sometimes a ringing in the affected ear, known as tinnitus, can occur. This, too, is usually temporary and gets better with treatment.
Treatment of swimmer's ear
A healthcare professional can prescribe antibiotic drops; applied for seven to 10 days, they usually take care of the problem. The pain that is a hallmark of swimmer’s ear usually subsides after just a few days.
Keep the ears dry
For the infection to heal, doctors usually recommend no swimming for two weeks. In addition to no swimming (if kids must swim, use ear plugs and ear bands), during the course of treatment ears must be kept dry during bathing or showering; earplugs or cotton with petroleum jelly should be used to keep the moisture out of the ear area.
Q-tips can increase swimmer's ear risk
Any trauma to the skin of the ear canal can also provide an entry point for the bacteria. People who use cotton swabs to clean their ears, people who scratch their ears a lot or those with eczema or psoriasis are at greater risk for swimmer’s ear due to the skin abrasions.
How do you prevent swimmer's ear?
The best way to reduce the chances of getting swimmer’s ear is to take some easy precautions:
If you or your child develops swimmer’s ear, your summer fun doesn’t have to end. Seeing your physician or a hearing care professional to get treatment started right away will not only ease your discomfort, it will get you back in the water in no time. To find a clinic near you, visit our consumer-reviewed directory.